BIOSPACE | Vaccines have revolutionized medicine and have been used to eradicate, or potentially eradicate, deadly disease, such as rubella, polio, measles, and whooping cough. According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), there are 264 new vaccines in development to prevent and treat diseases, including those funded by CARB-X to prevent drug-resistant bacterial infections. The diseases targeted by vaccines in development include infectious diseases (137), cancer (101), allergies (10), autoimmune disease (8) and Alzheimer’s disease (4). Vaccines provide a high return on investment. In addition to health benefits, every dollar invested in vaccination in the 94 lowest-income countries in the world, $16 were expected to be saved in healthcare costs, lost wages and lost productivity.